Down Syndrome is a genetic defect which is very common during birth and the child who has Down's Syndrome will show conditions that would having some degree of mental retardation and also the child will have characteristic physical features.
Down Syndrome is named after John Langdon Down, who is the British doctor who described this genetic syndrome and the genetic cause of the defect, which is chromosome 21 which was later identified by French researchers.
Down Syndrome is also called Trisomy 21
and this genetic disorder is caused by the presence of the chromosome 21 or part of the chromosome 21 and this faulty chromosome causes growth delays and a moderate intellectual level.
Down Syndrome can now be identified by prenatal screening wherein the child who is born will be identified. However due to the introduction of the screening, unfortunately, the pregnancies have been terminated.
This genetic defect is a common one occurring in one out of a thousand babies every year and there are five thousand babies born every year with Down Syndrome.
Most of the cases of Down Syndrome are caused due to Chromosome 21 which is responsible for the genetic defect in the child, and Trisomy 21 causes problems due to which the body and the brain develop in an abnormal pattern.
Genes normally come in pairs and are arranged in a sequence of chromosomes. Normally there are forty six pairs of chromosomes.
However in case of Down Syndrome, there are forty seven chromosomes with the addition of chromosome 21.
The symptoms of Down Syndrome include decreased muscle tone at birth, flattened nose, small ears and small mouth, upward slanting eyes, wide and short hands and physical growth that is slower than other children.
Children with Down Syndrome have trouble in their mental development and also in their social interaction. They would have problem like a limited attention span, poor judgement and they are slow in learning.
Children growing up with Down Syndrome begin to realize their limitations as they begin to grow older, and this causes a lot of frustration and anger in them and they also have to stay in special schools as interacting with people could create problems for them.
There are a lot of medical problems that are present in children having Down Syndrome like heart defects, dementia, eye and ear problems, hip dislocation problems, and also teeth that come slowly and at places where the child would have problems in chewing.
There is no treatment for abortion, however due to the way the body is formed and due to the several medicals problems that follow, like gastric and heart problems that follow which require immediate attention and may require surgery.
Particular attention needs to be given to the child while breast feeding is done.
This is because the children with this syndrome lack proper muscle coordination and this may result in spilling of the milk which is bad for the child’s growth. However it is found that the children can successfully breast feed in these cases.
Obesity is something that is seen in the adults with Down Syndrome and also older children.
So the people who take care of them have to see that there’s a lot of activity for them and also they need to see that the adults have to avoid high - calorie foods.
There are also special institutes that are setup to take care of the children with Down Syndrome which cater to their special needs.